# Author Archives: Operation Maths

## Dear Family, your Operation Maths guide to Early Mathematical Activities (EMA)

Dear Family, given below is a brief guide to understanding the topic of Early Mathematical Activities (EMA) as well as some practical suggestions as to how you might support your children’s understanding at home. Also below, are a series of links to digital resources that will help both the children, and you, learn more about Early Mathematical Activities.

#### Understanding Early Mathematical Activities

Early Mathematical Activities is a strand in Primary Maths for children in junior infants only, although the activities can also suit children at the beginning of senior infants, as revision, as well as being suitable for many children in their final preschool year. The focus is on doing activities, that develop the child’s mathematical thinking, but that do not involve number or counting. The children will be:

• identifying things that are the same, and things that are different
• matching pairs of items that are identical and/or items that belong together
• classifying (sorting) items into into groups that are identical and/or belong together
• comparing items and sets of objects to determine which is larger or has more, and ordering objects according to to a certain criteria e.g. their length, size, weight etc.

All of these type of activities help prepare the children for later, similar activities, involving numbers and counting.

As mentioned, an essential skill is for the children to recognise objects and images that are the same and that are different. The objects may be completely identical in all features, or have the same colour but a different shape or size. The children will learn to match identical items (e.g. socks) and to match items that are different but belong together (e.g. fork and spoon). Later, the children will learn to sort items into different groups, depending on the purpose.

#### Practical Suggestions for Supporting Children

Most of the Early Mathematical Activities can be incorporated into the various tidying and sorting/organising activities that occur regularly around the home:

• Putting away or sorting clothes. Ask your child:
• ‘What items are identical (or exactly the same) and belong together in matching pairs?’ For example socks.
• ‘What items are identical or exactly the same and but don’t belong together in matching pairs?’ For example any t-shirts, or jeans, or pieces of underwear that are identical.
• ‘What items are not exactly the same, but do belong together?’ For example, a pyjama top and bottom set, a shorts and t-shirt set etc.
• ‘What items are the same colour?’
•  ‘What items are different from everything else?’
• Sorting, for example, the drawer of kitchen utensils and/or cutlery:
• Organise the contents into groups of items that are identical or exactly the same.
• What items don’t belong in any group e.g. a large soup ladle or wooden spoon? These items are different.
• Can you find any items that are similar, and do the same thing but do not look exactly the same? e.g. different types of spoons
• Can you find items that are not the same but usually go/belong together? E.g. fork and knife
• Tidying up the toy box or play room. Ask your child to suggest ways to sort the items into groups e.g.
• Sort according to type: all the similar items together, e.g. books, cars, dolls etc
• Sort according to colour: all the red items together, all the yellow items together
• Sort according to size: all of the large items together, all of the small items together
• Sort according to owner: all of each child’s toys together
• Organise the Lego pieces; you might sort them according to colour, shape, size or purpose e.g. all the wheels together, all the doors and windows together, all the mini-figures together etc.
• Identifying colours:
• Pick up something and ask your child to find another one that is the same colour or a different colour.
• Organise items into groups of the same colour. Ask your child to name the colour.
• Ask your child to show you an example of items that are the same colour, but not exactly the same (i.e. different shades of the same colour), and to use the words dark and light to describe these colours e.g. light blue and dark (or navy) blue.
• Play ‘I spy with my little eye something the colour of …..red’. Repeat with other colours.
• Go on a walk outside. Ask your child if they can you find any items from nature that are identical or exactly the same? Can he/she find any items that are different?

#### Digital Resources for Early Mathematical Activities

Happy Numbers Pre-Kindergarten: Work through the activities from Module 1, Topic A and Topic B.

Let’s Compare: A comparing sizes game, including picking out the biggest, smallest, shortest etc

Splash Learn – Sort objects by colour: after this activity try Sort by Size and Sort pictures.

## Dear Family, your Operation Maths guide to Place Value

Category : Uncategorized

Dear Family, given below is a brief guide to understanding the topic of place value as well as some practical suggestions as to how you might support your children’s understanding at home. Also below, are a series of links to digital resources that will help both the children, and you, learn more about place value. The digital resources are organised according to approximate class level:

#### Understanding Place Value

Place value is about exploring the base-ten number system we use: how our numbers are made up of digits, each of which represent different values, depending on their position or place in the number. In the senior classes the children will explore place value in numbers with a decimal point, as well as numbers without a decimal point (whole numbers).

No matter how large a number is, you really only need to know how to read a three-digit number, to be able to read any size number. This is because the digits are always organised in groups of three, as you can see in the image below. However, we do also need to know the significance of the commas. For example, three (3) million, six hundred and twenty-three (623) thousand, nine hundred and fifteen (915) = 3,623,915: the comma closest to the units is read as thousand, the next comma is read as million, etc.

At its most basic level, central to understanding our place value system, is to recognise that 10 single items or units or ones, can be grouped together to make a ten; that 10 tens can be grouped together to make a hundred; that 10 hundreds can be grouped together to make a thousand etc. In school, the children have lots of different materials that they can group together, or exchange, such as cubes, bundles of sticks, counters on ten frames and place value discs. At home, the children could bundle cotton buds or cocktail sticks or trading cards into groups of tens and fasten them with an elastic, or group identical pieces of lego into sticks of ten, or count out beads or buttons or pieces of pasta into small containers or bags as groups of tens.

In school, the type of place value learning experiences that the children have, are very similar at every class level; the main difference is that each class level will have different number limits. In school, we expect that by the end of first class, most children will understand place value in numbers up to 99, in second class up to 199, in third class up to 999, in fourth class up to 9,999, in fifth class up to 99,999 and in sixth class there is no limit … millions, billions, trillions even!

That is not to say that you should limit your child to the number limit for his/her class level. In reality, children will encounter much larger numbers in the real world, than they will encounter in their maths book, so feel free to throw bigger numbers at them. But, bear in mind that, even if a child can read or say a complicated number, it doesn’t necessarily mean that they understand its place value.

#### Practical Suggestions for Supporting Children

• Ask your child to read out loud any numbers they meet around your home and in the wider environment, e.g. numbers on signposts, car registrations, the number of pieces in a jigsaw, page numbers on catalogues, the numbers on houses or hotel rooms, larger numbers on fact books e.g. Guinness Book of World Records, recorded times for races, etc.
• Correct language: When you are talking about numbers be careful to use the correct language e.g. for 91,856 say ‘ninety one thousand, eight hundred and fifty six’ not ‘nine-one-eight-five-six’ and for 23.95 say ‘twenty three point nine five’.
• Zero does not equal ‘oh’! It’s an unfortunate convention, but the way we talk about numbers every day can often be mathematically incorrect and/or misleading. For example, when calling out a mobile number, that starts with 08….. we will likely say ‘oh eight‘…… Yet 0 is a digit called zero, whereas O or ‘oh’ is a letter of the alphabet and not a number at all! So, when verbalising numbers with zero, try to get into the habit of saying ‘zero’ instead of ‘oh’.
• Numbers that end in ‘-teen’ or ‘-ty’ can be difficult for some children. In particular, some children can have difficulty hearing the difference between numbers ending in ‘-teen’ and ‘-ty’ when they are spoken out loud, e.g. ‘fifty’ (50) sounds very like ‘fifteen’ (15) when spoken, yet their values are very different. Try to say these type of numbers clearly, and encourage your child to say them clearly also, so that they appreciate the difference between these similar-sounding numbers.
• Rounding large or awkward numbers is something we do to make them easier to say or report. For example, if there was 91,856 people at a concert or a match, the media might report that there was just over ninety thousand or there was almost ninety two thousand people in attendance. When you encounter numbers in the media, encourage your child to round them; ask him/her what the number would be roughly/approximately. If you come across a number that has already been rounded, together you could guess/speculate as to what the exact number might have been.
• Make place value fun!
• Play counting games on car journeys, e.g. each child in the car picks a colour and counts every car of that colour that they see or meet on the road. The winner is the person who hits the highest number before the driver’s patience wears out!
• Race to the page! Challenge your child to try to find certain page numbers, in books with plenty of pages, as quickly as they can. Use a dictionary or other reference book, or even an Argos catalogue and call out a page number, for example ‘three hundred and ninety’ and see how quickly that page can be found. If you have more than one copy of a suitable big book or catalogue, two players can race against each other.
• Play some simple place value games using dice or playing cards
• Play any of the online interactive games below

#### Digital Resources for First and Second Classes

Khan Academy – Intro to Place Value: this video and the videos that follow, explore place value in 2-digit numbers and then answer the practice questions. You can also register for a free Khan Academy account to record your progress and explore other areas of Grade 1 maths.

Happy Numbers – Place Value Activities: A series of lessons and activities; do activities from Module 4 and/or 6.

Maths Visuals – Counting by one: Watch any of the videos and count out loud the numbers and images that are shown. Do you spot any patterns?

Maths Visuals – Counting above 100: Watch any of the videos and count out loud the numbers and images that are shown. Do you spot any patterns?

Maths Visuals – Place Value Concepts: Watch any of the videos and count out loud the numbers and images that are shown. Do you spot any patterns?

White Rose Place Value: a series of lessons on place value within 20. These lessons could be followed up with other place value lessons in year 1 or year 2

Place Value Grouping Video: Watch a video of how ones (units) can be grouped into tens, to make various numbers.

Candy Machine: Help make up the orders of candy sticks by using bundles of tens and ones

Dienes Penalty Shoot Out: Identify the number of counters and create numbers using Dienes blocks (aka Base Ten Blocks). Choose game mode to earn penalty chances, and then numbers up to 20, 50 or 100.

Place Value Basketball: Select the correct number to match the image. Work your way up through the various options/levels.

Lifeguards: Click and drag into the place value grid, the correct number of place value discs to make up the given number. Choose between 0-50 or 0-100 options. You can also play a similar game called Shark Numbers

Maths Goalie – Reading numbers:  Read the numbers in word form and then input the same number but in standard form. Choose reading numbers, and then number to 20 or 100.

Place Value Charts: Make a given number by combining the parts that make up the number. Select practice and then T O (Tens and Ones) in either column.

Rocket Rounding: A multiple choice game involving rounding numbers: start with rounding numbers up to 99 and with the easier option of having a number line and then try to play the other more difficult option, no number line.

Battleship Numberline: Can you blow up the enemy submarines? This game starts very easy, where you must click the correct number on the number line, but then the game progresses in difficulty as the player must work out where a given number would be placed on the blank number line. Choose the whole number game.

I Know it! Place Value: Scroll down to place value to do any of the activities. For children at the beginning of first class try Place Value up to 20, Base Ten blocks up to 20 and Count to 100 instead. There are some more advanced activities in the second grade section.

Splash Learn – Place Value: An assortment of place value games organised according to US grade levels; start with the grade below your current class level i.e. for first class pupil’s start with Kindergarten games and for second class pupils start with first grade games.

Place Value: a selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum)

#### Digital Resources for Third and Fourth Classes

Khan Academy – Place Value: in this video and the videos that follow, explore place value in 3-digit numbers and then answer the practice questions (says Grade 2, but is suitable for 3rd class). Fourth class student can access similar activities for 4-digit numbers and larger here. You can also register for a free Khan Academy account to record your progress and explore other topics.

Happy Numbers – Place Value Activities: A series of lessons and activities; for numbers up to 1,000 do Module 3. For rounding to the nearest ten and hundred do Module 2 here.

White Rose Place Value: a series of lessons on place value suitable for 3rd class. These lessons could be followed up with other place value lessons in year 3 or year 4

Place Value House: video lesson that explores hundreds, tens and ones (units), suitable for 3rd class.

Expanded Form: A video that introduces expanded form and explains how we can expand numbers to see the parts that make it, suitable for 3rd class.

Dienes Penalty Shoot Out: Identify the number of counters and create numbers using Dienes blocks (aka Base Ten Blocks). Choose game mode to earn penalty chances, and then numbers up to 1,000 or 5,000.

Place Value Basketball: Select the correct number to match the image. Work your way up through the various options/levels.

Lifeguards: Click and drag into the place value grid, the correct number of place value discs to make up the given number. Choose between 0-500 or 0-1,000 options. You can also play a similar game called Shark Numbers

Maths Goalie – Reading numbers:  Read the numbers in word form and then input the same number but in standard form. Choose reading numbers, and then number to 1,000 or 10,000.

Place Value Charts: Make a given number by combining the parts that make up the number. Select practice and then either H T O (for third class) or Th H T O (for fourth class) in either column.

Rocket Rounding: A multiple choice game involving rounding numbers to the nearest 10 or 100, up to 999 or 9,999. Start with the easier option of having a number line and then try to play the other more difficult option, no number line.

Battleship Numberline: Can you blow up the enemy submarines? This game starts very easy, where you must click the correct number on the number line, but then the game progresses in difficulty as the player must work out where a given number would be placed on the blank number line. Choose the whole number game.

I Know It! – Place Value: Scroll down to place value to do any of the activities with suitable number limits. There are some more advanced activities in the third grade section.

Splash Learn – Place Value: An assortment of place value games organised according to US grade levels; start with the grade below your current class level i.e. for third class pupil’s start with second grade games and for fourth class pupils start with third grade games.

Place Value Games: An assortment of place value games using numbers of various sizes. Third class pupils should start with games up to 999 (three-digit numbers) and fourth class should start with games up to 9,999 (four-digit numbers)

That Quiz – Place Value: This quiz has lots of options, on the left hand side, that can be changed to suit the ability of the child. In place value, the lowest level is 3. Each time do the set 10 questions, if you get 10 or 9 correct, go up a level; if not stay at that level. There are lots of different types of activities: For Identification (it automatically starts on this) you must identify the value of certain digits; other options are conversions, rounding and sums.

Place Value: a selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum)

#### Digital Resources for Fifth and Sixth Classes

Khan Academy – Place Value: in this video and the videos that follow, learn about place value in larger numbers and then answer the practice questions. You can also access similar activities for decimal numbers here. If you register for a free Khan Academy account, you can record your progress and explore other topics.

Happy Numbers – Place Value: A series of interactive lessons and activities on numbers up to one million. Do Module 1 Topic A, B and C

White Rose Place Value: a series of lessons on place value suitable for 5th class. These lessons could be followed up with other place value lessons in year 5 or year 6

How big is a billion? It is very difficult to visualise the size of a million, or a billion, of anything. This video demonstrates the length of a thousand, a million, and a billion coins if they were placed top to bottom.

Maths Goalie – Reading numbers:  Read the numbers in word form and then input the same number but in standard form. Choose reading numbers, and then numbers to 1,000,000 or 10,000,000.

Place Value Charts: Make a given number by combining the parts that make up the number. Select practice and then either whole numbers or decimal numbers, in either column.

Rocket Rounding: A multiple choice game involving rounding numbers, using whole numbers or decimal numbers. Start with the easier option of having a number line and then try to play the other more difficult option, no number line.

Battleship Numberline: Can you blow up the enemy submarines? This game starts very easy, where you must click the correct number on the number line, but then the game progresses in difficulty as the player must work out where a given number would be placed on the blank number line. Choose the whole number or decimals game.

Who wants to be a Hundredaire? Game show-like quiz based on place value.

I Know It! – Place Value: Scroll down to place value to do any of the activities with suitable number limits. There are some more advanced activities in the fourth grade section.

Splash Learn – Place Value: An assortment of place value games organised according to US grade levels; start with the grade below your current class level i.e. for fifth class pupil’s start with fourth grade games and for sixth class pupils start with fifth grade games.

Place Value Games: An assortment of place value games using numbers of various sizes. Fifth class pupils should start with games up to 99,999 (five-digit numbers) and sixth class should start with games above this. There are similar games based on decimal numbers accessible here.

That Quiz – Place Value: This quiz has lots of options, on the left hand side, that can be changed to suit the ability of the child. In place value, the lowest level is 3. Each time do the set 10 questions, if you get 10 or 9 correct, go up a level; if not stay at that level. There are lots of different types of activities: For Identification (it automatically starts on this) you must identify the value of certain digits; other options are conversions, rounding and sums. Sixth class pupils looking for a challenge could try scientific notation.

Place Value: a selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum)

## Considering a new maths scheme? Choose Operation Maths!

For any schools and teachers considering a new maths program, Operation Maths is your one-stop shop:

Operation Maths is not just about teaching children to do maths; it is about teaching children to understand maths, in a deep and meaningful way.

It provides an all-round comprehensive maths program that is the most-teacher-friendly available, providing a full suite of long-term and short term plans, including plans for teachers in multi-grade situations. The plans are broken down into comprehensive guides to each topic, suggestions for maths stations and Aistear themes in the junior classes, as well as daily concept-by-concept suggestions in the senior classes.

It is also the most child-friendly program available, designed around incorporating engaging and playful activities that are based on a concrete, pictorial, abstract (or CPA) approach, which enable active participation and learning, while developing a better understanding of maths concepts and facilitating a seamless transition to second level.

It is a completely integrated print and digital package, with a suite of custom made eManipulatives (interactive tools), ready-to-go digital activities, videos, weblinks, scratch (coding) lessons and more!

The design of Operation Maths has been heavily influenced by some of the key maths pedagogies that are widely recognised as the most effective for teaching and learning, and/or which epitomise best practice in teaching maths, in those countries with a strong tradition of excelling in maths education. These key pedagogies include:

In schools where Operation Maths has been introduced, there is evidence that it has had a positive impact on the standardised test results at the end of the first year of implementation.

Since its launch in 2016, Operation Maths continues to evolve in response to the needs of its users. The Operation Maths blog, launched in 2017, continues to provide teachers, and most recently families and children, with information, suggestions and support. Its Digging Deeper into….. blog series (2017 to present), aimed at teachers, looks in-depth at the various primary maths topics, and provides suggestions of further helpful resources etc. Most recently, a new blog series entitled Dear Family (2020) was launched to provide families with a wealth of practical suggestions as to how they might help support their children’s learning in maths, as well as lists of up-to-date, recommended resources, available online.

To find out more about Operation Maths, please click on any of the links above.

To get samples please contact your local Edco representative

And if you are already a user of Operation Maths, please spread the word to your colleagues and friends in other schools! Míle buíochas!

## Dear Family, your Operation Maths guide to Time

Category : Uncategorized

Dear Family, below is a brief guide to understanding the topic of time, as well as some practical suggestions as to how you might support your children’s understanding at home. Also below, are a series of links to digital resources that will help both the children, and you, learn more about length. The digital resources are organised according to approximate class level:

#### Understanding Time

Although time plays a very important role in everybody’s life, it can be quite a difficult concept to grasp:

• Unlike our number system, time is not built around a base-ten system. All of the other maths topics in measures (i.e. money, weight, capacity and length) are all built around units of ten, one hundred, one thousand and so on e.g. 100 c in €1; 1,000m in 1 km etc. But time is totally different: 60 seconds in a minute; 60 minutes in an hour; 24 hours in day; 7 days in a week; 4 and a bit weeks in each month; 12 months in a year etc.
• While we can’t see or touch time, we have ways to record and show it, but again, there are many different ways to do this: sand timers, sun dials, analogue clocks and watches, digital watches and displays (which can be either 12 or 24 hour), calendars etc.
• Time is not the same all around the world; each country belongs to a time zone and the time is different in each time zone.
• Judging how much time has passed can be quite difficult, as it depend on what we are doing; we all have experienced how time can drag, or it can fly when having fun.

#### Practical Suggestions for all Children

• Talk about time all of the time! When you wake up your child in the morning, (or he/she wakes you!) announce the time and day; how many school days left before the weekend; how long before you need to leave the house; the start time for the sport’s practice or music lesson; dinner time etc. Give your child a set amount of time to complete a task or chore. Try to become a type of talking clock yourself, constantly announcing the time of day and the time left/needed to do something. This will help develop your child’s own internal sense of time.
• What are we doing today? Involve your child in planning trips, visits and outings: what time do we need to leave to arrive there on time; what time do we need to get up at? How long is it going to take you to get ready? Highlight the importance of punctuality and being on time as a valuable life skill: we need to leave the house at 20 to 9 if we are going to get to the school for 9, etc.
• Lots of clocks! Try to have plenty of time devices around your home, and of different types, for your child to become familiar with the many different ways to measure time. It is never too soon to have a clock in your child’s own room and/or for them to wear their own watch; however, first clocks and watches should be of the analogue type (i.e. with hands and a face) rather than digital. Even if your child is not able to read the time on the analogue clock face yet, noticing and becoming aware of the movement of the hands and their direction (clockwise) helps develop your child’s sense of the passage of time, a valuable learning experience that will be built upon when ready.
• Buying a clock: While children need to be flexible, and to be able to tell time using a variety of different time devices, if you decide to buy a first clock or watch for your child, there are some clock features you should consider before you buy (click here to see some suitable examples):
• All the numbers 1-12 (not roman numerals) shown clearly.
• Minute intervals (i.e. little lines) shown clearly around the edge of the face.
• A minute hand that is long enough to show that it is pointing beyond the numbers (which mark the hours) out to the minutes around the edge (the purpose of the long minute hand is to point out to the minutes).
• Hour is key: When your child asks “what time is it?” ask them to try to work out what the time is roughly for themselves. When looking at an analogue clock, they should always look first at the short hour hand: which number is it pointing to (or closest to)? Then, that is the (nearest) hour. The minute hand only helps us refine that approximate time. When looking at an digital display, they should always look at the first digit; that is the hour that it was last. This is another example of why analogue is better than digital: it is possible to gauge the actual time more accurately using only the hour hand on an analogue clock, than using only the hour on a digital display.
• Mark the date: Have calendars and/or weekly charts/diaries visible around your home. Use the calendar to mark events that would be important to your child, like birthdays, holidays, Christmas, school concert etc. Involve your child: if there is space available to do so, he/she can mark these important dates using words and/or pictures. Also try to have calendars that start with Monday, since Monday is officially the first day of the week (read on here for more interesting info on this). On weekly charts, mark repeat events like sports practices, lessons etc.
• Dot, dot NOT dot! When writing or texting a time in digital format (e.g. See you at 6:30) always use a colon (two dots) rather than a single dot (i.e. don’t write 6.30). Firstly, a colon is what is used most often on actual digital displays. Secondly, a dot is identical to a decimal point (e.g. 2.5 meaning 2 and a half or the decimal point used when writing money e.g. €1.20) which, mathematically, is used with numbers on the base-ten system. And time, as we said earlier, does not work on a base-ten system. So using a single dot for writing time, may only confuse children.
• 24 hour & 12 hour: For the older children, draw their attention to 24 hour time and encourage them to translate 24 hour to 12 hour with a.m. or p.m. and vice versa. Most phones, devices and smart watches have the option to display either version, so perhaps set these to 24 hour time to provide your child with more opportunities to become familiar with it.
• When is it on? When does it leave? Highlight also any timetables and schedules that the household might use, or refer to, for example TV listings on an Electronic Programme Guide (EPG), cinema timetables, transport timetables (e.g. bus and train), flight arrival and departure times. In the case of an upcoming flight for a family vacation, encourage the children to identify the arrival and departure times and to use this information to calculate flight time. If there appears to be a difference between the outgoing and incoming flight times, can the child explain this, i.e. does he/she notice that flight arrival and departure times are always given as local time and that the destination may be in a different time zone?

#### Digital Resources for Infants

NB: By the end of senior infants, children are expected to be able to tell time to the nearest hour.

BBC Bitesize – Time: Nice images and a song to explore the structure of the typical day for a young child.

White Rose Maths – Time: A lesson for Year 1 on Time to the Hour.

Matholia – Time: A video lesson on Telling Time to the Hour.

Telling the time in words: Look at the clock and find the matching time in words. Do the first level only, reading time to the nearest hour.

I Know It! – Days of the Week: Answer questions about the Days of the Week.

Seasons and Days of the Week. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum.)

#### Digital Resources for First and Second Classes

NB: By the end of second class, children are expected to be able to tell time to quarter hour intervals.

White Rose Maths – Time: Lessons for Year 1 on Time to the Hour, Time to the Half Hour, Writing Time and Comparing Time. Lessons for Year 2 on o’Clock and Half Past and Quarter To and Past.

Matholia – Time: A series of video lessons, including Telling Time to the Hour, Telling Time to the Half HourQuarter Past and Quarter To

Khan Academy – Time: Watch the video to learn about time and then answer the practice questions. You can also register for a free Khan Academy account to record your progress and explore other areas of Early Math.

Let’s make a Calendar: From Starfall, this builds an interactive calendar for the current month and asks questions. NB: This is a US site so the calendar starts with Sunday, not Monday and includes the US holidays and feasts.

Using a calendar: From Maths Frame, 3 levels of questions about the current month. Start on level 1 and move up a level when confident.

Calendar Clowns: Answer a host of questions based on the calendar given.

Telling the time in words: Look at the clock and find the matching time in words. 5 different levels: reading time to the nearest hour, half hour, quarter hour, five minutes or minute, which can be played as timed or untimed games.

Telling the time: Read the time on an analogue clock. Lots of choice over levels, including: reading time to the nearest hour, half hour, quarter hour, five minutes or minute. Options include using a 24 hour clock and seeing how many correct answers you can get in a given time.

Time Tools: Match analogue and digital times, on the hour and half hour. Click on start to learn more about time (tell me more tab), telling time to any minute interval and to try out other challenges and games (other tabs along top).

Time Matcher: Memory game where you match equivalent amounts of time eg 1 week, 7 days etc

Time Teller: Tell the time game with 6 different levels, from half hour to minute intervals, and solving elapsed time problems in hours and/or minutes.

Adding Time Problems: Quiz game where you’ve to read the problems and work out the answer. Lots of options and levels.

Hickory, Dickory, Clock: Read the time at the bottom of the screen and chose the matching clock. Three levels available.

Clock Splat: Find the digital time that matches the analogue time and Splat! Options include hours, half hours and quarter hours.

That Quiz – Time: This quiz has lots of options, on the left hand side, that can be changed to suit the ability of the child. Ensure that the level is set to 1. Each time do the set 10 questions, if you get 10 or 9 correct go up a level, if not stay at that level. There are lots of different types of activities: For Simple clock (it automatically starts on this) you must type in the digital time; if you set it to Time passed you must identify the amount of elapsed time from first to second time.

I Know It! – Time: Scroll down to Time to do any of the activities. There are some more advanced activities in the second grade section.

Time: a selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum.)

Math Games: a whole suit of times games, for all class levels; choose the skill you want to practice.

#### Digital Resources for Third to Sixth Classes

Time: Background information on money from Maths is Fun, including Analog and Digital Clock Animation,  Time: AM/PM and 24 Hour Clock, Adding and Subtracting Time  and World Time Zones

White Rose Maths – Time: Lessons on Telling Time to 5 Minutes 1, Telling the Time to 5 Minutes 2, Hours and Days, Durations of Time, Compare Durations of Time. For 5th and 6th, check out Converting Units of Time & Timetables.

Matholia – Time: Lessons on Telling Time (Past & To), Telling Time AM & PM, Duration of Time 1 and Duration of Time 2

Khan Academy – Time: A unit of work exploring time, including how to read time to minute intervals, time on a number line and elapsed time. You can also register for a free Khan Academy account to record your progress and explore other areas and/or try more difficult material.

Splash Learn – Time Games:  for Third Grade.

Elapsed time number lines: A video from the Avery Bunch, showing how Marshall and Amanda solve elapsed time problems using number lines.

Using a calendar: From Maths Frame, 3 levels of questions about the current month. Start on level 1 and move up a level when confident.

Calendar Clowns: Answer a host of questions based on the calendar given.

Telling the time in words: Look at the clock and find the matching time in words. 5 different levels: reading time to the nearest hour, half hour, quarter hour, five minutes or minute, which can be played as timed or untimed games.

Telling the time: Read the time on an analogue clock. Lots of choice over levels, including: reading time to the nearest hour, half hour, quarter hour, five minutes or minute. Options include using a 24 hour clock and seeing how many correct answers you can get in a given time.

Time Tools: Match analogue and digital times, on the hour and half hour. Click on start to learn more about time (tell me more tab), telling time to any minute interval and to try out other challenges and games (other tabs along top).

Hickory, Dickory, Clock: Read the time at the bottom of the screen and chose the matching clock. Three levels available.

Time Matcher: Memory game where you match equivalent amounts of time eg 1 week, 7 days etc

Time Teller: Tell the time game with 6 different levels, from half hour to minute intervals, and solving elapsed time problems in hours and/or minutes.

Adding Time Problems: Quiz game where you’ve to read the problems and work out the answer. Lots of options and levels.

Find the start time: Quiz game where you’ve to read the problems and work backwards to identify the correct start time. Lots of options and levels.

Clock Splat: Find the digital time that matches the analogue time and Splat! Options include hours, half hours and quarter hours.

I Know It! – Time: (Third Grade) Scroll down to Time to do any of the activities. There are some more advanced activities in the fourth grade section.

That Quiz – Time: This quiz has lots of options, on the left hand side, that can be changed to suit the ability of the child. Ensure that the level is set to 1. Each time do the set 10 questions, if you get 10 or 9 correct go up a level, if not stay at that level. There are lots of different types of activities: For Simple clock (it automatically starts on this) you must type in the digital time; if you set it to Time passed you must identify the amount of elapsed time from first to second time; other options are arithmetic and conversions, which includes time zones for 5th and 6th.

Time: a selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum.)

Math Games: a whole suit of times games, for all class levels; choose the skill you want to practice.

## Maths by Month – June (updated 2020)

The final month of the school year is almost upon us, and as usual, this heralds the last installment in this year’s series of posts designed to explore the Operation Maths topics on a month-by-month basis.

As teachers and families, around the country, continue to support children via distance learning, we have continued to roll out our latest series of posts entitled Dear Family. Each of these posts focuses on a specific maths topic, and provide practical suggestions as to how families can support their child’s learning, along with providing tried and tested links to useful digital resources. We hope that, in some small way, they may prove to be beneficial, both now, and in the future.

The posts in the Dear Family series published to date, focused on the topics of weight, capacity, 2-D shapes3-D objects, number sentences and equations, money and chance. Some of these topics also feature in the plans for this coming month (see below). The next Dear Family posts, currently in development, will focus on the topics of time, patterns and lines and angles.

HINT: To ensure you don’t miss out on any future Maths by Month or Dear Family blog-posts, please subscribe to the Operation Maths blog via email, on the top right hand of this page.
Another way to keep up to date an all new maths-related developments is to like/follow the Edco Primary Maths page on Facebook and/or Twitter

Please feel free to share any of the Operation Maths blog posts with colleagues and members of your school community, including parents and families, whether they are Operation Maths users or not.

Book lists not finalised yet? Please consider Operation MathsNumber Facts, Bua na Cainte, Exploring Spelling, Let’s Talk Literacy, Explore with Me and My Learner ID. Click on the links for more information and to view sample pages from each program and/or contact your local Edco reps for samples.

### Operation Maths for Junior Infants to Sixth Class:

• Junior Infants: will be reinforcing their understanding of the numbers 0-5 via the topic of money.
• Senior Infants: Further Counting and Numeration, Comparing and Ordering and Combining and Partitioning of numbers to 10; patterns (different arrays of the same number, colour patterns, number patterns, odd and even numbers); time (one-hour intervals).
• First Class: Weight; Patterns; 3-D objects (in particular, connecting their understanding of 3-D objects to their understanding of 2-D shapes)
• Second Class:  More Place Value to 199; Area; Lines and Angles (revisiting half turns and quarter turns)
• Third to sixth classes: Operation Maths 3-6 is specifically structured so that the programme can be completed by the end of May, thus covering all of the topics in advance of the standardised testing.
Depending on your own specific school circumstances, you may find yourself looking for inspiration to fill the maths lessons from now until the end of month. Whether you’re an Operation Maths user or not, there are a whole suite of suitable ideas on this blog post.

Operation Maths users can also access custom-made digital resources to support these topics. To access these resources, log into your account at www.edcolearning.ie, select the At School Book/Pupil’s Book for your class level. Then you can either:

• Navigate to the relevant page in the book and click on the hyperlink to open up the specific activity for that page in a new tab.
• Click on the Edco Resources icon (on book cover image on left-hand side) to open the list of all the digital resources associated with that book.

### Other suggestions for June:

• Maths outside: typically this is the time of the year when teachers are bringing their classes outdoors for learning. Since the children are at home, longing to get into the outdoors, why not encourage them to safely do some of these activities, with their families, while on their outdoor walks.
• Outdoor Classroom Day 2020 was officially celebrated on May 21. If you missed this day, you can still access their resources with suggestions for all subject areas, including maths, https://outdoorclassroomday.com/.
• Maths Around Us activity ideas in your Operation Maths book and/or the the Maths Around Us videos accessible at https://www.edcolearning.ie/

We’re here to help!
If you have any questions on Operation Maths, Number Facts or anything related to primary maths over the course of the school year, please PM or contact Edco Primary Maths via Facebook and/or Twitter

## Dear Family, your Operation Maths guide to Chance

Category : Uncategorized

Dear Family, below is a brief guide to understanding the topic of chance (for 3rd-6th classes only), as well as some practical suggestions as to how you might support your children’s understanding at home. Also below, are a series of links to digital resources that will help both the children, and you, learn more about chance. The digital resources are organised according to approximate class level:

#### Understanding Chance

Chance is one of the most interesting, and fun, areas of primary maths, since it is mostly about probability, i.e. identifying the possible outcome(s) of random events. In school, the children are furst introduced to chance in school, where we use language such as impossible, (highly) unlikely, may or may not, possible, (highly) likely, certain, etc., to describe the likelihood of events occurring.

Children in 5th and 6th classes are also encouraged to use more mathematical ways, including using fractions, decimals and percentages, to express probability and predict the likelihood of something happening e.g. 100% certain, a 1 in 4 chance, 50/50, etc.

However, it is also important that the children realise that, no matter how accurate a mathematical prediction, the actual outcome(s) is not certain (except in the unlikely case where there is only one possible outcome); that is the element of chance! For example, when I toss a six-sided dice, each number has a equal chance of coming up. Therefore, if I do this repeatedly for a number of times, I could expect to see equal occurrences of each number. Yet that might not happen in reality! But, it is most often the case, that if you repeat this type of investigation enough times, the actual results WILL end up being very close to the predicted outcomes. In other words, the more you do something, the more likely it will happen as predicted.

Many of the activities in the Operation Maths books are specifically designed to explore and investigate this. So try them and see!

#### Practical Suggestions for all Children

• With your children, talk about ‘chance’ whenever you have the chance (excuse the pun!):
• What is the chance that you’ll go to school today?
• What is the chance that you’ll get homework today?
• What is the chance that you’ll get to watch TV or get to play computer games?
• What is the chance that it will be warm tomorrow, that it will rain, that it will snow?
• What factors affect the likelihood of these events occurring? For example, the day that it is, the time of year, whether the child has done their chores etc.
• Encourage your children to use chance words as accurately as possible, especially the words impossible and certain. For example:
• On a sunny day, what is the chance of rain? Unlikely or highly unlikely you could say, but it wouldn’t be correct to say impossible, because anything is possible!
• On a day when you have organised to do something e.g. go shopping, what is the chance of it happening? Likely or highly likely, because it is already organised, but it is not certain, because again anything could happen to disrupt the well-made plans, like the car mightn’t start.
• If I toss a 6-sided dice once, what is the chance of getting a 7? Now that’s impossible! What is the chance of getting a number from 1 to 6? That is certain!
• Children in 5th and 6th should be encouraged to also use fractions, decimals and percentages to express probability e.g. 100% certain, a 1 in 4 chance, 50/50, etc.
• Many games are designed around random outcomes so play board games, card games, dice games, any type of game where you can’t know from the outset who will definitely be the winner! Ask the children before you play, and as you play, who do they think will win and why; perhaps somebody in the family is a dab hand at rolling sixes, is a card shark or after a number of turns is already way ahead of everybody else. At the end of the game did that person win? Perhaps, on this occasion, a person was dealt “bad” cards, or the dice didn’t fall as hoped for, or another player caught up and overtook the early leader. Or maybe not! Experiences like this, help the children appreciate how lots of different factors can influence and affect an outcome, and that they can predict winners or outcomes based on the best information that they have at the time, but that the predicted outcome may or may not materialise.
• Study the weather! Look at the sky and discuss the chances of rain, sun, snow, lightning etc. Look up Met Éireann’s website to find out the weather forecast for your area and then, afterwards, discuss whether the predicted weather arrived. Again, while meteorology, the study of weather, is a science in itself, it is still involves using the best scientific information available at the time to predict the weather, which, in the end, may or may not happen.
• Sport provides us with an abundance of opportunities to discuss chance:
• What are the chances of a particular team or individual winning a game, match, fight, competition or race?
• Before the event could you predict an outcome?
• What information about the competitors or teams might be useful to influence this predication?
• Draw the children’s attention to any other situation where chance plays a role e.g. the chances of winning a raffle or the lottery.

#### Digital Resources for Third & Fourth Classes

Interactive online chance tools: No dice at home? Don’t want to have to make up a spinner? There are lots of interactive tools and random chance games here.

What are the odds? Interactive dice simulator, choose from 12, 20 or 30-sided dice, simulate making hundreds of rolls at once, and log the results automatically for analysis. Or just use it to play games!

FCPS – Probability: A series of instructional videos for Grades 3 and 4. The videos for Grade 3 cover how to Describe all Possible Outcomes (video 1), Justify Likelihood of Outcomes (video 2), Real Life Scenarios (video 3), Modeling Probability.

The videos for Grade 4 cover Intro to Probability (video 1), using Combinations (video 2), using Fractions to Describe Probability (video 3), Creating Probability Models.

Matholia – Chance: A simple video, for 3rd class, on will, won’t or might happen.

The Slushy Sludger Use your knowledge of probability to predict what kind of slushy you are likely to get from the choices on offer.

The Vile Vendor Probability Game Use your understanding of chance to work out the likelihood of getting these vile drinks!

Climber Probability Game: Help the climber reach the top by clicking on the colour that you think will win the spin.

Bobbie Bear: Explore combinations using this virtual tool; how many different outfits can Bobbi Bear wear on holiday

Softschools.com – Probability Quiz: What is the probability of the spinner landing on certain letters?

Probability & Statistics: a selection of games from ixl.com. Choose the games from your class level. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription.

Math Games – Probability: games to practice predictions and probability skills; go to the activities for your class level.

Mathwire: Check out this page for more games that focus on probability.

#### Digital Resources for Fifth & Sixth Classes

Probability: Background information on probability and chance from Maths is Fun

Interactive online chance tools: No dice at home? Don’t want to have to make up a spinner? There are lots of interactive tools and random chance games here.

What are the odds? Interactive dice simulator, choose from 12, 20 or 30-sided dice, simulate making hundreds of rolls at once, and log the results automatically for analysis. Or just use it to play games!

FCPS – Probability: This series of instructional videos for Grade 5 cover how to explore probability using Lists and Charts (video 1), using Tree Diagrams (video 2), using Fractions to Express Probability (video 3), Determining the Number of Possible Outcomes (video 4).

Basic Probability: A video from Math Antics, that introduces the concept of chance, language of chance and the probability line. Other suitable videos available include Calculating/Determining Chance and Chance Investigations.

Bobbie Bear: Explore combinations using this virtual tool; how many different outfits can Bobbi Bear wear on holiday

The Vile Vendor Probability Game Use your understanding of chance to work out the likelihood of getting these vile drinks!

Climber Probability Game: Help the climber reach the top by clicking on the colour that you think will win the spin.

Adjustable online spinner: use this to make up your own spinner, predict the outcome and and then investigate the actual outcomes.

Using area models: For fifth and sixth class, Mashup Math has this excellent video which demonstrate how area models can be used to identify all possible outcomes.

Using Tree Diagrams: Another excellent video from Mashup Math, this one demonstrates how tree diagrams can be used to identify all possible combinations.

Softschools.com – Probability Quiz: What is the probability of the spinner landing on certain letters?

Maths Frame – Probability Game: Work out the probability of scoring a number, or range of numbers, on a number spinner and answer in either fractions, decimals, percentages, or on a number line. Compare the probability of an event on two different number spinners and say which is more likely.

Mathwire: Check out this page for more games that focus on probability.

Probability & Statistics: a selection of games from ixl.com. Choose the games from your class level. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription.

Math Games – Probability: games to practice predictions and probability skills; go to the activities for your class level.

## Dear Family, your Operation Maths guide to Money

Category : Uncategorized

Dear Family, below is a brief guide to understanding the topic of money, as well as some practical suggestions as to how you might support your children’s understanding at home. Also below, are a series of links to digital resources that will help both the children, and you, learn more about money. The digital resources are organised according to approximate class level:

#### Understanding Money

Difficult Topic? Although money plays a very common, and perhaps very important, part in every child’s life, money is not automatically easy or obvious to learn about:

• Money comes in different colours, shapes and sizes, and in metal and paper forms (i.e. coins and notes), each of which has its own value.
• Furthermore, outside of the Euro Zone, most countries have their own currency and denominations of coins. And, when changing currency, you cannot do a straight swap i.e. €1 doesn’t equal £1 or \$1; the new value must be calculated using an exchange rate, which also varies.
• Many children do not recognise that the euro coins and notes follow a specific pattern ie they always have a 1, 2 or 5 as the first digit (see image below). That is why, when asked to draw the coins required to make a given amount, many children will still often suggest coins that don’t exist eg 3c, 7c etc.
• The sizes of the coins and notes are NOT proportional to their value i.e. a 20c coin is not twice as big as a 10c coin; a €100 note is not ten times the size of the €10 note.
• Money can be expressed using the symbols € or c, but NOT using both at the same time. Sometimes there’s a decimal point; sometimes there’s not. And, when using the € sign, it comes first (even though €6 is said as “six euro” as opposed to “euro six”), whereas the c sign comes after the numeral.

So even though understanding and using money is a vital life skill, it can’t be taken for granted that children will easily “get” this understanding.

Furthermore, more and more, transactions are becoming cashless, as people use credit/debit cards, money apps, contactless and online payments more than ever before. In the recent past, coins and notes, were very much a regular part of a child’s experiences; watching others counting out coins and notes to pay for goods, perhaps handing over a larger amount than required and watching change being handed back. Because of cashless transactions, today’s children are missing out on essential opportunities to handle cash, and/or see it being handled in real-life situations. The increased use of plastic and contactless payments also limits the opportunities for people to use their maths skills to total mentally, calculate change etc.

#### Practical Suggestions for all Children

• Cash is King: Since today’s children have less exposure to cash transactions, where possible, allow your child to handle real coins and notes.
• Collect coins in a jar and invite your child to count the money every so often to find out the total. Are there different ways to count mixed coins? What strategies might be better (more efficient)?
• If your child is not able to count up the total of amounts yet, then ask them to sort the coins into groups e.g. brown coins, gold coins, coins with two colours, coins with 1 on them, with 2 on them, with 5 on them etc (see also the Coins Game below). In particular, draw their attention to the fact that all the euro coins and notes only start with the digits 1, 2 or 5 and may or may not be followed by one or two zeros.
• Play shop at home. Use empty food containers etc., as goods to be bought/sold. Use play money or real coins for cash.
• If shopping with cash, involve your child: get them to handle the money, to identify the coins and/or most suitable amount to hand to the cashier and to predict (roughly or accurately, depending on the ability of the child) the change due back.
• If your child gets pocket money encourage them to talk about how much they have, how much they spend, how much they have left.
• Can you afford it? Should you buy it? While cashless transactions might be more regular than cash ones, one thing that has remained constant is that we all still appreciate the value of money, and getting value for our money.
• Encourage your child to budget and save for upcoming events (Christmas, holidays etc.) and/or to purchase more expensive items ( eg bike, games console, phone etc). Discuss the amount of money required, how much they currently have, how much they could expect to earn and/or save each week, how long it will take for them to have the necessary amount. Encourage them to write down this information as a type of written budget or financial plan (see also the Budget Game below, for 3rd class up).
• When purchasing items encourage your child to consider its value, its cost, and whether a similar item be purchased elsewhere for less. Shop around, as they say, to research your options, whether in the actual or virtual (online) shops.
• When grocery shopping, keep an eye out for the advertised special offers and deals; are they good options? What about multi-packs; are they good value? If there are different multi-pack offers for the same product, which offer is the best value? But don’t forget that just because there is good value on offer, if we end up buying more of the product than we need, will it end up going to waste?
• Go through the till receipt together after shopping; what did you buy? What items cost the most? What items cost the least? What products cost about the same amount? Was there any product that you hadn’t realised cost so much or so little?
• When out shopping for clothes, give your child a limited amount to spend. It is amazing how value-driven this can make your child become, and more selective of what they will purchase!
• If you are comfortable allowing your child to use the internet, he/she could help research a holiday or break for the family. Examine together which destination has the best deal/offers, etc.
• Money makes the world go round! As mentioned earlier, children may not realise that, outside of the Euro Zone, most countries have their own currency, and that, when changing currency, you cannot do a straight swap i.e. €1 doesn’t equal £1 or \$1. Rather, the new value must be calculated using an exchange rate, which also varies. If going on holiday to a non-Euro Zone country, involve your child in researching the exchange rate, and calculating how much of the foreign currency they will get when they exchange their euro.

#### Digital Resources for Infants

Spot the coins: Beginner level: Find the coins hidden in each picture. Advanced level: find the coins and order them according to value.

Coins game: Click on the Euro flag to select euro coins. Start with Sorting to sort One Coin or Two Coins into the money box(es). Next try Ordering and Counting money. Start with the easier options in each section and move on if too simple and/or when confident.

Toy Shop: Work out which coins will buy toy shop items, using just One Coin or Mixed Coins. In the Mixed Coins option you can also calculate change.  Start with the easier options and move on if too simple and/or when confident.

Keep Helen’s money safe: Read the story and decide what Helen should do with her money to keep it safe. Play ages 5-6

Moneyville is a fun and entertaining online virtual world that gives your child a basic understanding of the value of money and the basic principles behind earning and spending money. Suitable for children of 5 years and up.

My Money Week: Run every year in the UK around May, this is a national activity week which aims to boost children’s skills, knowledge and confidence in money matters. To access the resources, you need to set up a free account, which requires email details etc and entering any UK postcode. Once registered and logged in, scroll down to the bottom of the primary resources and click on Start journey; this will start off a series of excellent videos on Max’s Day Out, in which Max is deciding how best he might spend the money that he got for his birthday. The videos are designed in such a way that each one presents two possible options; the viewer selects an option, which automatically brings them to the follow-up video for their choice. There are many other resources also available here that focus on managing money.

Money: a selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum.)

#### Digital Resources for First and Second Classes

Spot the coins: Beginner level: Find the coins hidden in each picture. Advanced level: find the coins and order them according to value.

Coins game: Click on the Euro flag to select euro coins. Start with Sorting to sort One Coin or Two Coins into the money box(es). Next try Ordering and Counting money. Start with the easier options in each section and move on if too simple and/or when confident.

Toy Shop: Work out which coins will buy toy shop items, using just One Coin or Mixed Coins. In the Mixed Coins option you can also calculate change.  Start with the easier options and move on if too simple and/or when confident.

Maths is Fun – Money: Interactive games including Make the Amount, drag and drop the euro coins to make the required amount; Money Master, how fast can you give euro change.

Moneyville is a fun and entertaining online virtual world that gives your child a basic understanding of the value of money and the basic principles behind earning and spending money. Suitable for children of 5 years and up.

Keep Helen’s money safe: Read the story, decide what Helen should do with her money to keep it safe, and keep a record of the money that she gets along the way. Play ages 7-8.

My Money Week: Run every year in the UK around May, this is a national activity week which aims to boost children’s skills, knowledge and confidence in money matters. To access the resources, you need to set up a free account, which requires email details etc and entering any UK postcode. Once registered and logged in, scroll down to the bottom of the primary resources and click on Start journey; this will start off a series of excellent videos on Max’s Day Out, in which Max is deciding how best he might spend the money that he got for his birthday. The videos are designed in such a way that each one presents two possible options; the viewer selects an option, which automatically brings them to the follow-up video for their choice. There are many other resources also available here that focus on managing money.

Coin Cruncher: In this game you either select the correct coins to Make the Total or select the correct value for How much? There is an Easy level (no timer) and a Hard level (same question types but with a timer).

The Change Game: Click on the correct amount of change that you should get back.

That Quiz – Money: This quiz has lots of options, on the left hand side, that can be changed to suit the ability of the child. Ensure that the currency is set to Euro and the level is set to 1. Each time do the set 10 questions, if you get 10 or 9 correct go up a level, if not stay at that level. There are three different types of activities: For Identify (it automatically starts on this) you must type in the value of the cash shown; if you set it to Compare you must click on the amount of greater value; if you set it to Make change you must click on the cash required to make the correct change for the given transaction.

Adding Money Values: This video from Operation Maths allows the children to practice their addition of money skills.

Custom Car Garage: Select and pay for car accessories, using the correct coins. For first and second class, start at level one initially, and then go up levels as the child gets more competent.

Coconut Ordering Game: Select Prices and € to order amounts of euro

Money: a selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum.)

#### Digital Resources for Third to Sixth Classes

Maths is Fun – Money: Interactive games including Make the Amount, drag and drop the euro coins to make the required amount; Money Master, how fast can you give euro change; Unit Price, calculate the price per required quantity.

Money: Background information on money from Maths is Fun, including currencies, finding unit price, interest, investing money, etc. Often there are also related activities.

My Money Week: Run every year in the UK around May, this is a national activity week which aims to boost children’s skills, knowledge and confidence in money matters. To access the resources, you need to set up a free account, which requires email details etc and entering any UK postcode. Once registered and logged in, scroll down to the bottom of the primary resources and click on Start journey; this will start off a series of excellent videos on Max’s Day Out, in which Max is deciding how best he might spend the money that he got for his birthday. The videos are designed in such a way that each one presents two possible options; the viewer selects an option, which automatically brings them to the follow-up video for their choice. There are many other resources also available here that focus on managing money.

Is it a bargain? This fun mini-maths lesson gets pupils to use their mathematical ability to work out if so called ‘special offers’ are in fact good deals.

That Quiz – Money: This quiz has lots of options, on the left hand side, that can be changed to suit the ability of the child. Ensure that the currency is set to Euro and the level is set to 1. Each time do the set 10 questions, if you get 10 or 9 correct go up a level, if not stay at that level. There are three different types of activities: For Identify (it automatically starts on this) you must type in the value of the cash shown; if you set it to Compare you must click on the amount of greater value; if you set it to Make change you must click on the cash required to make the correct change for the given transaction.

Coconut Ordering Game: Select Prices and € to order amounts of euro

Space Trader: Practice spotting value for money as you trade with three outlandish alien shopkeepers for a range of space commodities.

Calculating Unit Rates: For 5th & 6th classes, this visual video from MashUp Math explains how to calculate unit rates, which has applications in unitary value in money, averages, ratios and proportion etc

Find the Total Cost: Again for 5th & 6th classes, this video from MashUp Math explains how to find the total cost, involving sales tax, ratios and proportions.

The Budget Game: Older children can explore the realities of budgeting, income and expenditure as well as how their own choices affect their money, well-being and enjoyment balances.

Money: a selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. (Please note that the class levels given do not always align accurately with the content of the Irish Primary Curriculum.)

## Dear Family, your Operation Maths guide to Number Sentences and Equations

Dear Family, below is a brief guide to understanding the topic of number sentences & equations, as well as some practical suggestions as to how you might support your children’s understanding at home. Also below, are a series of links to digital resources that will help both the children, and you, learn more about number sentences & equations.

#### Understanding Number Sentences and Equations

Number sentences are a part of Algebra. Number sentences are mathematical sentences made up of numbers, symbols and/or signs eg

• 11 – 4 = 7
• 3 × 6 = 18
• 4 + 2 = 5 + 1
• 4 + 5 > 6 + 2
• 5 + ☐ = 9
• 14 – 🌳 = 8
• y + 5 = 20

They can use simple numbers or be more complicated with bigger numbers, letters, fractions etc. Number sentences can be equations, where both sides are equal/balanced (4 + 2 = 5 + 1), or be unequal (4 + 5 > 6 + 2) where one side is greater than or less than the other side. Sometimes, the children are given complete number sentences and are asked to work out if they are true or false. More often, in primary maths, number sentences will have a frame or box to represent the missing value/number which must be worked out or solved e.g. 5 + ☐ = 9. The missing value may also be represented by a symbol or a letter (called a variable) eg 14 – 🌳 = 8, y + 5 = 20

An essential aspect of exploring number sentences is reading and interpreting correctly the signs and symbols. However, for children, the signs and symbols can be very confusing, because they can be so similar and yet all mean something completely different. Take for example + and ×; they are actually the same shape, but turned to look different. And they have very different meanings; the first means add and the second means multiply. Consider some of the other common maths signs: = ÷ – < >. These are all very similar to each other in design and shape, but very different in meaning. No wonder children can get confused! That is why, even though the children will come across number sentences in infants to second class, they will not actually explore this topic in depth, until they are in third class and higher.

Of all the signs used in maths, the equals sign (=) is one that is often misinterpreted. The sign itself is made of two identical lines, to indicate “same-ness”. So this sign is saying that the value of whatever comes before it, is identical to, or the same as, the value that comes after it e.g. 7 = 3 + 4. And sometimes there is more than one value on either side of the equals sign, so that each side has to be calculated to see if it is true e.g. 10 – 4 = 3 + 2 + 1 (Tip: the children could write the value for each side above/below that side so that it’s very obvious whether it’s true or not). The horizontal identical lines in the equals sign, also remind us of a balanced scales (see image below), where the total value/weight on both sides, is equal. When reading this sign with your child, always say “equals” or “is the same as”.

Number sentences are simply a mathematical way to represent a scenario or story. If I buy three big bars of chocolate, costing €1.50 each, I can show that information with these number sentences:

€1.50 + €1.50 + €1.50

or

3 x €1.50

So, often there can be more than one way to represent the information.

The child may be asked to represent a story or word problem with a number sentence. Or they may be asked to create a suitable story or word problem to match a given number sentence.

Whenever your child is working with word problems at home, encourage them to show it as a number sentence first, before they start to solve it. You can also ask them to show you how they sometimes use model drawings or number bond drawings (see image above) at school to help picture the problem. Drawings and diagrams are particularly useful as they encourage the child to see the “big picture” of the maths story, which can be a great help if they are finding the numbers and symbols difficult to interpret.

Sometimes your child might be given number sentences and asked to identify if they are true or false. To do this, it is not always necessary to work out both sides of the number sentence exactly. There is (usually) only one true or correct option, meaning that every other answer is incorrect or false. Encourage the children to use their estimation and number sense skills to quickly recognise when a statement is obviously false, e.g. in (c) below, two hundred and something and one hundred and something is definitely not bigger than 500 so I don’t need to work it out exactly to know that it is false. And while you might think this is a type of ‘cheat’ strategy, in reality, it is about using a more efficient approach, while also emphasising the value of estimation.

Now that you appreciate how confusing maths signs can be, don’t take it for granted that your child does, or will, understand the meaning of all the maths signs that they come across in their books. If your child is working with number sentences, ask them to read the sentence out loud for you and/or to tell you how their teacher verbalises certain signs. In school, we will often use a variety of language to describe a sign and sometimes that depends on the story that goes with the number sentence. For example, with the number sentence 7 x 9, that could be verbalised as seven multiplied by nine, seven groups of nine, seven nines etc. 20 ÷ 2 could be verbalised as twenty divided into two equal groups/parts, twenty divided by two, how many groups of two in twenty, etc.

#### Practical Suggestions for all Children

• Encourage your child to read aloud every number sentence. For example for 11 – 4 = 7 say “eleven subtract/minus/takeaway four equals seven”. Ask them to suggest a matching scenario/story eg “I had 11 sweets and I ate 4, now I have 7 left” or “I have 11 sweets and you have 4, so I have 7 more than you” (ie the difference between our amounts). Always read = as “is the same as” or “equals”.
• Ask your child to suggest how to represent the various maths scenarios that you encounter, as number sentences, e.g. how to work out the cost of a number of some items, the change that would be due after spending a certain amount, the number of sweets that everyone can get when a large bag is shared out, etc. Even if the child does not calculate an answer, it will benefit them to consider how the scenario might be shown using numbers and signs.
• In Operation Maths, the children may be asked to identify the maximum and minimum amounts that could be used in a number sentence. Draw your child’s attention to incidences where maximum and minimum are used in everyday life:
• you have to be a minimum of 1.1m to go on a certain theme park ride
• the maximum number of passengers on the bus is 52
• the maximum speed on a motorway is 120 km/h
• a child must be a minimum of 15 kg to move from an infant seat to a booster seat in the car.
• Whenever your child is working with word (maths story) problems at home, encourage them to show it as a number sentence or to make a drawing/diagram first, before they start to solve it.

#### Digital Resources for Third to Sixth Classes

Introduction to Algebra: information on basic algebra and how to balance equations from Maths is Fun.

Happy Numbers Fifth Grade: Do the activities in Module 5, Algebraic Expressions

That Quiz – Arithmetic: Use this to practice different types of number sentences; then try Inequalities (greater than, less than). You can also choose different options from the menu on the left-hand side.

I Know it! – Basic Algebra (Fourth Grade): Go to the Basic Algebra section to do any of the activities. You could also try the Basic Algebra section in Fifth Grade

Number Sentences: Background information including definitions and examples from Splash Learn

Write expressions: A practice game from Splash Learn. Chose the correct number sentence to match the word sentence.

Thinking Blocks: Practice making bar models that match word problems and then calculate and answer. Work through these in order, ie start with Thinking Blocks junior and if you feel that this is too easy then move onto the next set.

Number Balance: solve the equations by hanging tags on the correct number on the number balance. Has lots of different levels.

SolveMe Mobiles: These are a series of hanging mobiles puzzles that may or may not be balanced, and using the information you have to work out the missing values. They start quite easy and then progress in difficulty. You can register for free so that you can save your progress. Scroll down to the end of the page to play.

SolveMe Who am I: Another series of puzzles; this time you need to work out he mystery number from the clues given. They start quite easy and then progress in difficulty. You can register for free so that you can save your progress.

Mashup Math Equation Puzzles: There are lots of colourful puzzles to solve here, often with a seasonal theme. Print them out and solve them or just view them on a screen and see if you can work out the value of the symbols on each line. You can also check out the Mashup Math website for more puzzles, videos etc.

Functions and Equations: a selection of practice games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. Start with the second class games and work up through the activities (Please note that the class levels used here don’t exactly match the class level content in the Irish maths curriculum).

## Maths by Month – May (updated 2020)

A new month is just upon us, and as usual, this heralds the latest installment in this series of posts designed to explore the Operation Maths topics on a month-by-month basis.

As teachers and families, around the country, continue to support children via distance learning, to contribute to this effort in some small way, we have launched a new series of posts entitled Dear Family. Each of these posts, will focus on a specific maths topic, and provide practical suggestions as to how families can support their child’s learning, as well as links to useful digital resources. We hope that, in some small way, they may prove to be beneficial, both now, and in the future.

The posts in the Dear Family series published to date, focused on the topics of weight, capacity, 2-D shapes and 3-D objects, some of which also feature in the plans for this coming month (see below). The next posts, currently in development, focus on the topics of number sentences and equations, money and chance.

Please feel free to share any of the Operation Maths blog posts with colleagues and members of your school community, whether they are Operation Maths users or not.

HINT: To ensure you don’t miss out on any future Maths by Month or Dear Family blog-posts, please subscribe to the Operation Maths blog via email, on the top right hand of this page.
Another way to keep up to date an all new maths-related developments is to like/follow the Edco Primary Maths page on Facebook and/or Twitter

### Operation Maths for Junior Infants to Sixth Class:

Operation Maths users can also access a class specific, month-by-month list of relevant links and online resources via the Weblinks document, accessible on www.edcolearning.ie.

1. Log into your edcolearning account
2. Click on the At School Book/Pupil’s Book for your class level.
3. Click on the Edco Resources icon (on book cover image on left-hand side)
4. Select Weblinks from list of categories and then click to download the document.

Also accessible on  www.edcolearning.ie.  are the custom-made digital resources to support these topics. These will all be viewable when you click on the Edco Resources icon as directed above.

HINT: If you are new to Operation Maths this year or have changed class level, be sure to check out the Quick Start Guide to the Operation Maths books and the companion Quick Start Guide to the Operation Maths Digital Resources
Don’t forget that Operation Maths also has you covered for planning whether you’re teaching a single class or multi-class.

### Other suggestions for May:

• May the Fourth Be With You! International Star Wars Day (May the fourth) is almost here!
• Outdoor Classroom Day is May 21 2020. This global event encourages us to use the outdoors to teach, explore and learn. There are lots of resources with suggestions for all subject areas, including maths, https://outdoorclassroomday.com/. For more ideas for outdoor maths you could also check out:
• the Maths Around Us activity ideas in your Operation Maths book
• the Maths Around Us videos accessible at https://www.edcolearning.ie/
• this post, Maths fun in the sun

We’re here to help!
If you have any questions on Operation Maths, Number Facts or anything related to primary maths over the course of the school year, please PM or contact Edco Primary Maths via Facebook and/or Twitter

## Dear Family, your Operation Maths guide to 3-D Objects

Category : Uncategorized

Dear Family, listed below are some practical suggestions as to how you might support your children’s understanding of the maths topic of 3-D objects. Also below, are a series of links to digital resources that will help both the children, and you, learn more about 3-D objects. The digital resources are organised according to approximate class level.

#### Practical Suggestions for all Children

• Naming shapes: 3-D is short for three dimensional, i.e objects with length, width and depth/height. In Operation Maths we refer to them as 3-D objects, so as to distinguish them from their flat, 2-D relations. 3-D objects can also be referred to as solid shapes and they include cubes, cuboids, spheres, cones, cylinders, pyramids, etc. Distinguishing between 2-D shapes and 3-D objects can be a bit confusing for both adults and children; for example, the shape of a real ball may be referred to as a circle, since, if a ball is drawn, or shown in a picture, then the flat, 2-D shape of the ball in the image is now a circle! But in reality, it is a 3-D object called a sphere. And a box is not a 2-D shape, it is a 3-D object called a cuboid, but the flat surface of a box is usually the 2-D shape of a rectangle or, sometimes, a square. So, if looking for 3-D objects at home, ask the children to examine and if possible pick up, actual objects, as opposed to flat representations of the shapes in a picture book or magazine.
• 3-D Shape hunts: Play games like “I spy, with my little eye, something the shape of a cube, cuboid, sphere” etc. Again, be careful that you affirm with your child that it is the entire object that you are looking at, as opposed to just a surface or a flat face of the object.

• Sweet! A great place to find 3-D shapes is in treats and their wrappings or containers. Next treat time, look carefully at your Maltesers (spheres), Toblerone box (triangular prism), Smarties container and Lindor chocolates box (both hexagonal prisms), tub of Quality Street (octagonal prism) Starburst/Opal Fruits (cuboid), mini-rolls and hot chocolate powder (both cylinders) and wafer cones (cone, of course!)
• Properties: Each family of 3-D objects also has properties or characteristics that make them different from other 3-D objects. In the younger classes, the children will be exploring whether a 3-D object can roll, stack, slide etc. When out and about or helping around the house, children can be asked to name the 3-D objects that are easier to stack on shelves in the shop, in the cupboard etc? What 3-D objects might roll off a shelf? As the children get older, they will be exploring properties such as the number of corners (also called vertices), the number and type of edges (straight or curved), and the number and type of surfaces (flat faces or curved surfaces). Through developing a better understanding of what makes an object that 3-D object, the children can start to group 3-D objects with similar properties or characteristics together.
• Take it apart! 3-D objects and 2-D shapes, as mentioned earlier, are very connected. Another way that children can explore this relationship is to take apart examples of 3-D objects. Boxes are ideal for this, so, before you put your boxes in the recycling bin, ask your child to tear it open along an edge so as to open it out flat and identify the 2-D shapes that make it. This is referred to as the 2-D net of a 3-D object. Did they see the 2-D shapes they expected to see?
• Play, play, play! Encourage your child to play and explore with 3-D objects as much as possible:
• Lots of the toys that are aimed at preschool age children focus on 3-D shapes: wooden building blocks, shape sorter toys etc. Even older children can return to these toys and look at them in a new way to see what they can now discover and say about these shapes.
• Magformers , Geomag and 3-D puzzles are examples of toys specifically geared towards the construction of 3-D structures. Other toys that can be used to create 3-D structures include Lego, K’nex, Mega Bloks, Plus-Plus and Stickle Bricks/Bristle Blocks.
• Build anything! Use boxes and any objects from around the home to build, stack, etc. Without even realising it, the children will be exploring and learning about the properties of these shapes.
• Solve 3-D puzzles. Perhaps you have a Rubik’s Cube somewhere around the house? Or look out for other 3-D puzzles like Rubik’s Cage, Soma cube or Tetris Shake. Any of these these type of puzzles are a very worthwhile way to spend time!

#### Digital Resources for Infants

The Number Jacks have quite a number of 3-D shape-based episodes including Sphere today, Gone tomorrow, a Circle at both ends (cylinder) and Boxing Day.

3-D Shapes Song: Introduces cone, cylinder, cube and sphere.

3-D Solids: A video lesson from Matholia introducing common solid (3D) shapes, including cubes, cuboids, cones, cylinders, spheres and pyramids.

I know it – Geometry & Shapes Try the solid shapes interactive quizzes for Kindergarten

Solid Shapes: A selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. Activity L1-L7 are all about solid, 3-D objects.

Math Games: a whole suit of geometry games, for all class levels; choose the skill you want to practice.

#### Digital Resources for First and Second Classes

NB: Children in first and second may also enjoy the links for infant classes, above

Describing and Naming Solids: A video lesson from Matholia describing the properties of common solid (3D) shapes, including cube, cuboid, cylinder, cone and sphere.

White Rose Geometry: a series of lessons on 2-D and 3-D shapes. These lessons could be followed up with other geometry lessons in year 2

What Shape am I? Use the clues to identify the name of the 3-D object. Guess the name before you click on to see the answer.

Drawing 3-D Objects: Video to show how to draw 3-D objects. Drawing is a great way to understand these shapes better.

I know it – Geometry & Shapes Scroll down to the interactive quizzes for Grade 1 and for Grade 2

3-D Shapes: A selection of games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription. Activity N1-N10 are all about 3-D shapes.

Math Games: a whole suit of geometry games, for all class levels; choose the skill you want to practice.

#### Digital Resources for Third to Sixth Classes

NB: Children in these classes may also enjoy the links for first and second classes, above

Maths is Fun: Background information on 3-D solids as a part of geometry.

Describing and Naming Solids: A video lesson from Matholia describing the the characteristics (e.g. faces, edges, corners) of common solid (3D) shapes, including cube, cuboid, cylinder, cone and sphere.

Khan Academy – Solid Shapes: Watch this series of videos on geometric solids and answer the practice questions.

3-D Shapes: Lots of useful information about 3-D shapes from BBC Skillswise, including a video highlighting 3-D shapes in the real world.

Drawing 3-D Objects: Video to show how to draw 3-D objects. Drawing is a great way to understand these shapes better.

Cube Nets: Can you predict which of these nets will form a cube? Make your prediction and then watch the animation to see if you were correct.

IXL: A selection of geometry games from ixl.com. You can do a number of free quizzes each day without having a subscription.

I know it – Solid Shapes: Interactive quiz for Grade 3 and another one for Grade 4

Kangaroo Hop: Get your kangaroo to the finish line first by choosing the correct 2-D or 3-D shapes.

Math Games: a whole suit of geometry games, for all class levels; choose the skill you want to practice.

3-D shape quiz: For 5th or 6th class or those looking for a challenge!

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